Card Hba Là Gì


What is a host bus adapter (HBA)?

A host bus adapter (HBA) is a circuit board or integrated circuit adapter that connects a host system, such as a server, to a storage or network device. An HBA also provides input/output (I/O) processing khổng lồ reduce the load on the host"s microprocessor when storing & retrieving data, helping lớn improve sầu the host"s overall performance.

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An HBA and its associated disk subsystems are sometimes referred khổng lồ as a disk channel, while the HBA itself is often called an HBA card. An HBA is typically characterized by the interconnect technology it supports, as well as its tốc độ, port count & system interface. Most HBA cards plug in lớn the Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) slots of the host computer, although they might come in other form factors, such as mezzanine cards for blade servers.

Although the term HBA can apply lớn a variety of interconnects, it is most commonly used with storage protocols, such as Fibre Channel (FC), Small Computer System Interface, Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) và Serial-Attached SCSI (SAS).

HBA cards usually plug in lớn the PCIe slots of host computers.

Fibre Channel host bus adapters

A Fibre Channel HBA enables connectivity & data transfer between devices in an FC-based storage area network (SAN). An FC HBA can connect a host VPS to lớn a switch or storage device, connect multiple storage systems, or connect multiple servers when they"re used as both application hosts & storage systems. SAN management software recognizes the HBA as the connection point.

Manufacturers of FC HBAs generally update their products in line with increases in the data rates of FC network giải pháp công nghệ. Fibre Channel products first became available in 1997. Since then, FC HBAs have sầu grown steadily faster. When first introduced, FC HBAs delivered data rates of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps), but speeds have sầu doubled with each new generation:

2 Gbps (Gen 2) 4 Gbps (Gen 3) 8 Gbps (Gen 4) 16 Gbps (Gen 5) 32 Gbps (Gen 6) 64 Gbps (Gen 7)

Gen 6 FC (32 Gbps) can be configured khổng lồ deliver 128 Gbps by using parallel FC links to lớn stripe four lanes of 32 Gbps FC, thus creating a single liên kết of 128 Gbps. The FC roadbản đồ indicates that single-lane FC speeds will reach 128 Gbps by 2024, so the four-lane solution might become obsolete or be applied khổng lồ the faster speeds.

FC HBA manufacturers generally enhance products with additional features as they update lớn newer generations of FC giải pháp công nghệ. Improvements over the years have included data integrity features khổng lồ prsự kiện on-the-wire corruption in database environments. Improvements also include expanded tư vấn for virtualization to lớn increase the density of virtual servers.

The market-dominant manufacturers of FC HBAs have been Marvell QLogic & Emulex. (Avago Technologies acquired Emulex and then Broadcom, taking on the Broadcom name in the process.) Additional FC HBA manufacturers include Atkhổng lồ Technology và Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE).

Distinguishing features of FC HBAs include performance, reliability, security, power capabilities, tư vấn for VPS virtualization và the availability of single-pane management software.

SCSI adapters/SCSI HBAs

A SCSI HBA is commonly associated with parallel SCSI, a once-popular data transfer giải pháp công nghệ that has largely been displaced by faster SAS. A SCSI HBA, or SCSI adapter, facilitates connectivity và data transfer between a host & a peripheral device or storage system as defined by the SCSI set of American National Standards Institute standards for I/O interconnects.

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A plug-in HBA thẻ typically initiates and sends service và task management requests to a target device, such as a storage drive or array, and receives responses from the target.

Parallel SCSI devices are connected khổng lồ a shared bus. The maximum parallel SCSI speed is 3trăng tròn megabytes per second. This is considered too slow to lớn address the demands of modern computing systems, & performance often degrades as more devices are added khổng lồ the shared bus. Parallel SCSI HBAs are viewed as outdated technology, and most manufacturers have sầu discontinued producing them.


SAS was developed to address the limitations of traditional parallel SCSI và to deliver higher data transfer rates. Like parallel SCSI, SAS uses the SCSI commvà set, but the method of data transfer is different. SAS is a point-to-point serial data transport protocol.

A SAS HBA is a type of SCSI HBA that typically connects a host computer lớn a storage device, such as a hard disk drive sầu, solid-state drive sầu, just a bunch of disks device or tape drive. SAS HBAs are able to lớn connect khổng lồ single- or dual-port storage devices that are compatible with the SATA or SAS interface. In fact, many of today"s SAS HBAs are sold as SAS/SATA devices.

SAS bandwidth started at 3 Gbps & advanced khổng lồ 6 Gbps và then 12 Gbps. Each new generation of SAS also brought additional functionality, such as the ability to lớn connect devices across longer cable distances. Differentiators between SAS HBA products include the supported SAS speed, data transfer rate, port count, PCIe bus type and power consumption.

Vendors such as Dell, HPE và IBM sell entry-màn chơi storage arrays that support a SAS SAN fabric and enable direct connections lớn servers equipped with SAS HBAs, eliminating the need for network switches. SAS HBAs are typically less expensive sầu than FC HBAs, although an FC SAN offers better performance và more configuration options than a SAS environment.

SAS HBAs can also connect khổng lồ SAS switches lớn enable connections between multiple servers and external storage, but the use of switched SAS is not as comtháng as direct connections between the server & storage array.

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Major SAS HBA manufacturers include Atto lớn Technology, Broadcom (through Avago"s acquisition of LSI), Microsengươi (through its acquisition of PMC-Sierra) and HPE.

Fibre Channel HBAs connect & transfer data in FC-based SANs, while iSCSI HBAs deliver SAN connectivity over TCP/IP. & Ethernet networks.

Other types of network adapters

As with HBAs, the following adapters can also connect a host system khổng lồ storage or network devices:

Related TermsFibre Channel (FC) port typesA Fibre Channel port is a hardware pathway into and out of a node that performs data communications over an FC links. Seecompletedefinitionqueue depthQueue depth, in storage, is the number of pending input/output (I/O) requests that a storage resource can handle at any one time. SeecompletedefinitionWorld Wide Name (WWN)A World Wide Name (WWN) is a chất lượng identifier that is hard-coded inkhổng lồ each Fibre Channel (FC) device by the device"s ... Seecompletedefinition