Alternative Energy Là Gì

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The Paris Agreement has sent a signal, but could society vày enough khổng lồ achieve the goals of this landmark climate agreement?


To explore the answer to this question we need khổng lồ go baông xã lớn the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. We would see that it was built on the baông chồng of fossil fuels; first coal & then oil và then natural gas. These provided energy for industrial furnaces, trains, ships & much more. Coal was initially the starting point of town gas for cities, but this was later replaced by piping in natural gas.

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Today, nearly every service people use and every hàng hóa consumers buy has a fossil fuel somewhere in how it is made or delivered.


Indeed, a stark reality of the early 21st century is the lack of a clear development pathway for an emerging economy that doesn’t include coal. Coal requires little technology and offers a great deal of energy. As such, it is a stubborn and persistent part of the high-CO2 energy system. Dealing with it will take determined action by governments to lớn provide competitive alternatives.

In recent years, electrithành phố has come to be generated efficiently and cost effectively from wind and solar power, as has been the case with hydro-electriđô thị for many decades. Rapid progress with renewable electrithành phố technologies has led some commentators khổng lồ think about the complete replacement of fossil fuels within the broader energy system.

But despite more than a century of progress, electricity makes up only 20% of the final energy that society uses today và the rate of increase has been the same since the earliest days, about two percentage points of final energy giới thiệu per decade. To achieve sầu the goals of the Paris Agreement that pace of growth would need khổng lồ rapidly increase.


onaga.vn’s lachạy thử energy scenario, Sky, requires a complete re-wiring of the global economy in just 50 years. However, even in 2070, when Sky achieves the societal goal of net-zero emissions, oil, coal & gas are still in use.


The Sky scenario pathway illustrates a technically possible, but challenging pathway lớn achieve the Paris Agreement. In it renewable energy surpasses fossil fuels for electricity generation shortly after 2030. Renewable energy then dominates electrithành phố generation by the 2050s, but even with an outlook that stretches lớn the end of the century, electrithành phố doesn’t pass 60% of “final energy”1 use. The remaining 40% comes in the size of hydrogen và hydrocarbon fuels, such as petrol. And hydrocarbon – oil or gas based – feedstocks are also required to lớn supply a growing chemicals industry.

Dem& for fossil fuels declines in Sky, but still in 2100, industry will use some fossil fuels for processes requiring intense heat và the transport sector will still seek the high energy density of hydrocarbon fuels to power some ships and planes. Although, a portion of these fuels are synthesized – or manufactured – from sustainably grown biomass.


1 “Final energy” is the name given khổng lồ the energy society uses khổng lồ deliver a service. Examples include gasoline in the oto delivering mobility or electriđô thị delivering light in the trang chủ.


But what if we look even further inlớn the future? In theory & perhaps in practice sometime in the 22nd century, all energy sources & hydrocarbon products could start their life on a solar panel.


Electriđô thị could, in theory, be used khổng lồ make hydrogene via electrolysis of water and carbon could be extracted from the oceans or atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Combining these could make any hydrocarbon material, from fuels for planes to plastics for consumer goods. In Sky, some of these synthetic routes begin khổng lồ emerge in the second half of the century, but it will take time for these new industries lớn grow & compete. They don’t exist today, although the chemistry on which they would be built is well understood and used in other ways.

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A century is a long time, but perhaps the minimum period required lớn see a complete evolution of the energy system. Society may eventually achieve a world where everything is renewable, but it is an unlikely outcome for the 21st century alone.


Read the Sky publication to see how the goals of the Paris Agreement could be met through a combination of technology, government policy & societal actions.

Could society achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement? What vị you think? Share your thoughts on social truyền thông media using #onaga.vnscenartiện ích ios


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Download Sky Scenario

The Sky scenario illustrates a technically possible, but challenging pathway for society lớn achieve sầu the goals of the Paris Agreement.


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Could society achieve sầu the goals of the Paris Agreement?

Discover the Sky scenario through our lachạy thử nội dung series, twelve questions addressing key topics found within Sky.

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onaga.vn & the energy transition

onaga.vn scenargame ios are not the onaga.vn business plan nor a policy proposal. To find out what onaga.vn is doing khổng lồ thrive through the energy transition click here.


For over two decades onaga.vn scenario thinking has incorporated the issue of climate change. The Sky scenario joins two previous onaga.vn scenartiện ích ios, Mountains & Oceans that saw rapid decarbonization but fell short of the goals of the Paris Agreement. To achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, the Sky scenario relies on a complex combination of mutually reinforcing actions by society, markets và governments. It adopts an approach grounded in current economic & policy development mechanisms, but then progressively becomes ‘goal-driven’ lớn achieve sầu society’s ambition for net-zero emissions by 2070. At onaga.vn, we hope it’s a helpful contribution lớn one of the world’s toughest challenges. You can explore all three scenargame ios at www.onaga.vn/Scenarios


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